The pressure on fossil fuels and threat to the climate change have made the human race to move toward renewable energy, The advancement in the technology have improved the efficiency in energy produced by renewable energy and led to cost reduction. All this factors have led to increased the demand for alternative energy and this had led to rapid transition toward cleaner and sustainable methods of electrical power. There are many renewable energy sources such as solar ,wind, tidal and geothermal power.
Solar energy is abundantly available .Its doesn’t belong to anybody and hence it is free of cost. Due to which it is widely popular form of renewable energy. It is non polluting and also control the the greenhouse effect.
Solar energy can be used for producing electricity. With the use of Solar Photovoltaic cell (SPC). The sun lights get converted to DC electricity directly. This energy can be used immediately when produced or we can store this in battery for later use. This stored electrical energy can be used to lighting.
Wind energy is form of solar energy. With wind energy we can produce electricity. The wind turbines tap the kinetic energy which is there in the wind into mechanical power. A generator connected is used to convert the mechanical power to electricity. This can be used for water pumping in the fields.
The energy obtained from rise and fall of tides is called tidal energy.The movement of the water towards and away from the shore , this process can be taped in to produce electricity. Turbines can be placed in the path of the moving water , As this turbine rotates it will produce electricity.
The heat from the earth can be used to produce geothermal energy. The centre of the earth it very hot.The temperature is about 5000 degree at the core.The heat from the core heats the layer above it called the mantle , Due to heat the mantle melts it is called magma.This magma can reach just below the earth surface.When rain water seep through the earth surface , it can become super heated due to magma below.Some of the heated water rises to the surface of the earth as hot springs, sometime the hot water can be trapped below the surface of the earth as geothermal reservoir.
For producing electricity , we need to drill well into geothermal reservoirs .The hot water that rises emerges at the surface as steam. This steam can be used to drive turbines to produce electricity